Tag Archives: Eminent Domain

It Pays (Well!) to Submit Actual Cost Items for Relocating Businesses

MoneyIn my last blog post, “An Overview of Capped Actual Cost Items for Business Owners Affected by Eminent Domain” I discussed two reimbursement options available to business owners who must relocate due to eminent domain; lump sum and actual cost.

The lump sum amount is a rather simple process for the business owner.  He/she simply accepts the $20k[1] available for relocation and ‘calls it a day’.  No other claims processing is needed. Hopefully, the business owner has cash reserves available in addition to the $20k because rarely does a full relocation of a business fall within that dollar amount.

I am often asked by business owners, “$20k (or whatever the capped amount may be) sounds like a lot of money. Why would I want to go through the trouble of calculating actual costs?”

While $20k may sound like a lot of money a business owner can benefit 100 fold or more through actual cost accounting.  Business owners can relocate to a better location and some often upgrade their equipment while previously that might not have been possible. Further, a business owner can include the services of a relocation consultant in their process where the professional costs will be reimbursed as well.  Note: Preparation of claims is not a reimbursable expense, but planning for claims is reimbursable.

But that is really just the ‘tip of the iceberg’ for the business owner who benefits from actual cost reimbursement.

For example, I worked with a pharmacy owner who chose not to accept the lump sum payment.  Line item costs for a handful of reimbursement amounts which the pharmacy owner received are as follows:

Pharmacy Relocation Reimbursements        

  1. Transportation of Personal Property – $27,000
  2. Packing , crating, unpacking, uncrating of Personal Property – Included above  
  3. Disconnecting, dismantling, removing, reassembling, and reinstalling equipment, machinery, and other personal property – $72,000
  4. Professional services for planning , moving, and  reinstalling the personal property – $15,200
  5. Re-lettering signs and replacing  printed materials made  obsolete  by the move – $8,000
  6. Purchase of substitute personal property. $34,000
  7. Searching  for a replacement location (Maximum $2,500) – $2,500Note that there are 27 line items the agency will consider for reimbursement.  I have just listed 7 items which more than exceeds the $20k the owner might have received if he had taken the lump sum.

So I ask, “If your business needed to relocate due to eminent domain, would you take the lump sum offered by the agency or would you consider working with a business relocation consultant to reap the best benefit from your move?”

I offer proof.

My next blog post will indicate the reimbursement for a company with 50+ employees.

 Martyn Daniel
www.EminentDomainandBusinessRelocationConsulting.com


[1]   If a business owner chooses to be reimbursed using actual cost as the basis for the claims reimbursement, bear in mind, though that some expenses are capped.

Note that a $10,000 cap on the category referred to as Reestablishment is the minimum set by the Federal Relocation Guidelines. Some states have higher amounts, some are at $50k or higher, and a few are unlimited. Link to a state-by-state relocation listing here.

In the state of WA, where I often practice eminent domain and business relocation consulting, the Lump Sum cap is $20k.

An Overview of Capped Actual Cost Items for Business Owners Affected by Eminent Domain

In my last blog post entitled, “Would You Choose Lump Sum or Actual Cost Relocation Reimbursement? I discussed two reimbursement options available to business owners who must relocated due to eminent domain; lump sum and actual cost.

If a business owner chooses to be reimbursed using actual cost as the basis for the claims, some expenses are capped.

Capped Expenses: Reestablishment (maximum $10,000):

Note that the $10,000 cap mentioned above is the minimum set by the Federal Relocation Guidelines. Some states have higher amounts, some are at $50k or higher, and a few are unlimited. Link to a state-by-state relocation listing here.

1. Repairs or improvement to the replacement property as required by law or code

2. Modification to the replacement property to enable the business to operate

3. Construction and installation of new signage to advertise the business

4. Redecoration or replacement of soiled or worn surfaces such as carpeting, paint, paneling

5. Advertisement of the replacement location

6. Increased cost of operations for two years

7. Other items considered essential to the reestablishment of the business

Since an eminent domain and business relocation consultant’s services are an eligible cost when opting for the actual cost for a planned relocation, the capped items listed above are where a consultant’s expertise is important.

For example, #2 – capped within the $10,000 (depending on your state or location) is ‘modification to the replacement property to enable the business to operate’.  A consultant with construction experience can suggest modifications which are contained within that reimbursement amount.

On the other hand, a business owner may simply look at a replacement property (if he even has the time to search for properties) and believe that hefty modifications leading to out-of-pocket expenses is the only solution to enable the business to operate.

Can you see why an eminent domain and business relocation consultant’s services are absolutely necessary to the seamless transition in an eminent domain move?

In my next blog post, I will compare actual cost estimates for relocation for small businesses versus acceptance of the lump sum.

Do you have any questions about the capped amount in your state?

Would You Choose Lump Sum or Actual Cost Relocation Reimbursement?

Under Relocation Guidelines featured on my site by state, business owners who must relocate due to eminent domain can choose to receive benefits from the government agency one of two ways.

1) Lump Sum Payment – up to $20,000 based on income

2) Actual Cost Relocation – based on actual eligible costs, some of which are capped.

Lump Sum Payment

Business owners can receive a lump sum or a fixed payment of up to $20,000 and call it a day.  The business owner will move themselves and no other claims can be submitted to the agency for reimbursement.

So if it costs the business owner $300,000 to relocate machinery, office equipment, parts, furniture for example, along with setting up of computers, telephones, heating and air conditioning, the business owner will pay-out-of-pocket for anything over and above the $20,000 amount.

In this example this amount would be $280,000.

In a cash-strapped economy, any out-of-pocket expenses could make or break a business.

Actual Cost Relocation

The following expenses can be reimbursed to the business owner based on the individual and actual costs of the move.

Moving (no maximum amount with one exception):

1. Transportation of Personal Property

2. Packing, crating, unpacking, uncrating of Personal Property

3. Disconnecting, dismantling, removing, reassembling, and reinstalling equipment, machinery, and other personal property

4. Storage of personal property up to 12 months

5. Insurance for the replacement value of personal property during the move and necessary storage

6. Any license, permit, or certification required at the replacement site, which the business had at the displacement location

7. Replacement value of property lost, stolen, or damaged during the move

8. Professional services for planning, moving, and reinstalling the personal property

9. Re-lettering signs and replacing printed materials made obsolete by the move

  • Stationery
  • Notification of the move

10. Actual direct loss of tangible personal property

11. Reasonable cost incurred trying to sell and item that is not to be relocated

12. Purchase of substitute personal property.

13. Searching for a replacement location (Maximum $2,500)

14. Costs to secure professional move bids

15. Low Value/High Bulk

16. Disposal of personal property and hazardous materials

If a business owner does not opt for the lump sum payment and chooses to be reimbursed via actual costs, there are a few expenses which are capped. My next blog will explain and list these items.

If your company has to move due to eminent domain, which option would you choose? Contact Martyn Daniel, Eminent Domain and Business Relocation Consultant to help you answer that question.

 

Land Use Attorneys Should Work With Eminent Domain Consultants

As reported on the land attorney blog of Waldo and Lyle, PC law http://www.emdomain.com/index.html , “Small Business Owner Stands Up to Condemning Authority . . . and Wins”, Charles Andrews of Virginia, owner of Downtown Used Auto Parts received good news in 2006 that the Supreme Court denied Virginia’s Norfolk Redevelopment and Housing Authority (NRHA) the right to condemn his property for use as a parking lot for employees of an adjacent Coca-Cola plant.  http://www.emdomain.com/Editorials/small/small.html
Andrews’ did not accept the land valuation offer in his eminent domain case. “One of the reasons Andrews rejected NRHA’s offer was NRHA’s refusal to compensate Andrews for the going business, despite the fact that it could not be relocated.”

A common misconception of eminent domain is that businesses must take the offer the government makes for property or else the business owner will not receive anything at all.

Although NRHA had offered to purchase the property, Andrews refused to sell.

In December of 1999, NRHA sent C & C Real Estate (Andrew’s company) a letter stating NRHA’s intent to acquire the property. Andrews was dismayed. “If you look at that letter you get, the way they write it sounds like you don’t have any options. Your option is nothing! They tell you what they’re gonna do. They tell you they’re going to take your property and they’re going to relocate you. They don’t want to do that. They didn’t even want us in the city,” he said.

Andrews was fortunate. After one and a half years of legal proceedings the Judge ruled that the NHRA was not authorized to condemn.

And although his salvage business could not be relocated, in cases where a business can be relocated, there are only two choices; a standard relocation option or a planned option.

Andrews’ attorneys might have advised him to accept either the standard government relocation or an amount based on income no greater than $20,000. Or Andrews might have worked with an eminent domain consultant to review specific relocation line items. The latter would allow for relocation costs to be reimbursed at a much higher rate.

Anytime a property can be relocated, land attorneys should consider working closely with an eminent domain relocation specialist for a planned relocation. While the attorney is handling the legal aspects of the case, the consultant can respond to the submission of relocation claims, many of which are not capped; the exception being the search for a relocation site at reimbursed at $2,500 and reestablishment costs which vary by state from a maximum of $10,000 to unlimited. All other planned relocation line items must be reasonable in cost and have supported information to be approved by the relocation agency.

The Waldo and Lyle Law firm states, “We work with experienced eminent domain appraisers, real estate professionals, engineers, traffic consultants, economists, soil experts, environmental scientists, land planners and other experts to develop and prove our client’s case. Whether we are helping a property owner protect her home, a church protect its property, or a commercial or industrial owner protect its business assets, we have the experience to represent successfully the property owner.”

Martyn L. Daniel, Eminent Domain and Business Relocation Consultant

 

Will My Business Have the Necessary Support to Plan My Eminent Domain Relocation?

eminent domain moving van

 

 

When a business must relocate due to eminent domain, help from the agency is available but there are limitations to that assistance which business owners need to know.

When faced with eminent domain, an agent is assigned to each relocating business.

 

The agent’s services include:

  1. An explanation of eligible reimbursement categories for relocation costs
  2. Answering questions
  3. Obtaining moving bids
  4. Submitting relocation reimbursement claims

 

It is important to note that the agent is not required to plan for the move.  Planning the details of the move is the responsibility of the business owner.

And that can be a problem.

A business owner must maintain his business operations before the move occurs. It is important that the operation continues to produce goods and services to minimize unprofitable down-time. No business owner wants to lose much needed revenue before and during the relocation negotiation process. Employees and other operational expenses still need to be paid.

But the inevitable will occur…the business will need to relocate to make way for whatever improvement is to be in the space the business now occupies.

So planning a proper move is vital to a seamless relocation.

A business owner must find a new location for the business; however, other than providing real estate listings, the agent does not assist with this vital aspect of the eminent domain process.

One major obstacle that business owners face is that they are not typically versed in construction details.  A business owner may find a good location for the business but the building may not be turnkey.  If for example, machinery must be moved, special considerations must be made to ensure that the new location can house the machines.

How will a business owner know if the new site needs major upgrades to accommodate relocating machinery and/or office equipment?

Hiring an attorney will certainly help the business owner understand his legal rights but will these individuals have construction knowledge?  Will they know if a business owner needs additional plumbing to accommodate special equipment?  Will an attorney recognize that a relocating business owner has an opportunity to replace older equipment with updated equipment and can use relocation benefits to make this positive change?

An agent will submit a relocation claim to the agency for reimbursement but the business owner is responsible for recognizing the opportunity for any upgrades and must also plan for a seamless transition.

No two businesses are the same. Every business is unique so a ‘one size fits all’ approach to relocation will not work.  Unfortunately, the agent does not have the time to spend with each business owner to plan individual moves. But more importantly, it is not just about relocating from one space to another…it is about making the move to the new location better than the last.

Many relocating businesses often have the opportunity to make improvements that might have been planned on paper but never initiated at the original site due to lack of space, time or available funding. So relocating to a new site can often mean a fresh start and a chance to make key strategic improvements to the overall business plan.

But again, even improvement planning is the responsibility of the business owner.  The agent is only responsible for ensuring that the right-of-way is cleared and that the owner has the information available to act on the move.

In the case of the Trimet eminent domain case in Portland to make way for light rail, the agent ensures that each business owner receives an Acquisition and Relocation brochure. This is a rather informative document which offers an explanation of terms such as ‘valuation’, ‘just compensation’, and ‘condemnation’.  Again, the document is simply an explanation of what the business owner is required to know but it is a ‘one size fits all’ brochure. And because each business is unique in its service or product, its culture, its size, and its needs, a personalized review of every business is needed but not a requirement by the agent. (Incidentally, an agent may be assigned to more than one business.  If an owner has ever tried to reach other government agencies, such as the IRS for example, to ask questions, all any representative can really do is reiterate IRS rules and code.)

In some cases, if a relocation agent cannot respond to a business owner’s question, the agent has to take the owner’s question to the headquarters to further clarify the question.  For a busy owner trying to keep the business going before the relocation transpires, any time delays could have a negative impact on the operations.

If your business must be relocated due to eminent domain, think about the best use of your time as the business owner.  Will you have the support you need to make the best move possible for you and your business? Think about putting a team in place to help you find the best location for your business.

If you are faced with eminent domain, begin to plan early.  Draw up a list of locations you feel may be ideal for your business. Think about what you want to accomplish…do you want a larger facility or do you want to add a warehouse or a work area?  Will you have equipment which needs to be moved and will that equipment fit in the new location?

 

 

 

 

 

North Tarrant Express and Eminent Domain

TxDOT’s filing of eminent domain on the North Tarrant Express may be the positive aspect this project needs for right of way acquisition. 

Eminent domain provides a set of rules that the property owners, tenants, and the public agency (TxDOT) have to follow. These rules make the acquisition process smoother and often more fair for the property owner and tenants.

Eminent domain regulations spell-out how fair market value is determined for the properties and what relocation benefits are available to the tenants.

Even with regulations in place, there can still be significant differences in the interpretation of these rules. Typically, these obstacles involve the disparity in property values and relocation costs.  However, eminent domain regulations are in place to help all parties involved to reach bilateral goals resulting in a quicker and fairer outcome.

Martyn Daniel has helped hundreds of businesses successfully relocate; often to more prosperous locations.  Martyn offers one-on-one consulting services, group workshops and online seminars for clients who need the relevant facts to make an educated decision. 

To schedule a free 15-minute no obligation call with Martyn, please click here for an appointment https://my.timedriver.com/F8VSS .

Right of Way

 

What You Need to Know about Right-of-Way

Right of way is real estate owned by the government.  When the government needs your property for a new or expanding project, their right of way will adjust to accommodate their project by taking your property.  The government has the right to purchase your property with the use of eminent domain to acquire their needed right of way.

 The engineers designing the government project determine the right of way needed. As a property owner, you should be invited to offer your input on the design concepts at local public meetings.  The intentions of these meetings are to take in community questions and comments for design considerations, as well as, fulfilling a requirement for preparing the environmental impact statement, which is a necessary part of the eminent domain process.  However, when asking participants in my recent eminent domain workshop on their experience with these meetings, they all replied that they attended every meeting offered, and none of their input was incorporated into the design.  Nonetheless, you will want to attend these public meetings to at least become better informed about the project and how the new right of way will affect you or your property.

Eminent Domain, Condemnation, Relocation, and Compensation Workshop

 

Property and  Business Owners Learn About Eminent Domain

Businesses and property owners in Battle Ground, Washington facing eminent domain, condemnation, and relocation caused by a highway widening, are getting help by attending an Eminent Domain Workshop.

 Whether a business is relocating, or a property owner or business is reconfiguring their existing location, the best practices for getting compensation for their costs from the government agency are similar.  To cover both subjects, this workshop has been designed as follows:

 The goals of the workshop are to:

  1. Help participants prepare a plan that is best for them using the knowledge of what compensation, or benefits are, and are not, available to them from the public agency
  2. Improve what items and amounts will be paid to them from the public agency
  3. Minimize business downtime
  4. Minimize their time spent on the eminent domain process

 The  agenda for this three-hour workshop follows:

  • How to plan based on knowledge of which costs are eligible and ineligible for payment from the public agency
  • Learn the importance of staying within the eminent domain guidelines
  • How to avoid the pitfalls of common mistakes made in eminent domain
  • How to plan, prepare, and submit costs to improve the approval and compensation of costs from the public agency
  • How to plan to minimize downtime, and be paid, by the public agency for the extra costs related to minimizing downtime
  • Learn what to do, and not do yourself. When, where, and who to seek for assistance, and who will the public agency pay for assisting you
  • Questions and answers on your situation

 

Purpose of Workshop

The purpose of this workshop is to give these businesses and property owners a condensed education about the eminent domain process, more than would be received from other sources, so participants can make informed decisions.  The workshop will not cover all of the details and decisions that will face each individual, however, participants will receive valuable, relevant, and usable information that will improve their outcome with the eminent domain process well beyond the value of their time and cost of the workshop.

 An additional and important advantage for the workshop participants is they will begin networking together, which will help them compare notes during the eminent domain process, to help maintain consistent treatment.  This is helpful because, as much as they try, the public agency does not always treat everyone the same.  This particularly happens when the agency has several agents working on the project, agents are reassigned to other projects, or because the agents do not fully understand your needs or situation.

 Martyn guarantees each participant’s satisfaction of attending the workshop with a full refund at the end of the workshop to anyone not satisfied.

Are you and your neighbors facing eminent domain?

Improved Eminent domain success can be achieved by attending a workshop.   You can also participate in the design of a workshop for your group’s specific needs, location, and situation.  Businesses and property owners will be more successful with eminent domain when they begin planning early, before they loose their options and benefits while waiting.

I-15 Core Project – Eminent Domain and Business Relocations

Business Relocation

The I-15 Core expansion adds several new lanes and revised intersections spanning 24 miles starting in the town of Lehi and heading south passing through American Fork, Pleasant Grove, Orem, Provo, Springville, and Spanish Fork.

For the size of this project, there are relatively few businesses having to relocate.  What I see is a good effort by the design team to utilize the existing right of way, already owned by the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT), avoiding significant impacts to businesses and property owners.

There are a large number of partial, or strip takings, which minimizes the typical impact on businesses on a project of this size.  Strip takings may create some severance damages resulting in UDOT making cost-to-cure payments to solve problems and make a property functional after the new right of way severs the properties.  This will likely create some business relocations, which sometimes show up when the impact to the property is understood by the property owner or the business tenant.

 Although minimal, there are some full acquisitions of commercial properties were UDOT is using eminent domain to force the sale of the property.  This has triggered business relocations with the use of UDOT’s Acquisition and Relocation Guidelines.

 UDOT’s guidelines closely follow the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Acquisition and Relocation Guidelines. However, UDOT has enhanced the federal guidelines by increasing payments in two areas, the in-lieu payment category, and the reestablishment category.  

 The in-lieu payment, which is a one-time payment to businesses based on their average annual income, was increased from the FHWA limit of $20,000 to a maximum payment of $75,000. The in-lieu payment requires the business to wave all of their rights to other relocation benefits, which can be a significant sacrifice for a business even at the increased level. 

 The increased reestablishment category, which FHWA limits at $10,000, UDOT increased to $50,000.  The reestablishment category covers a certain number of business cost reimbursements that are in addition to the moving, reinstallation, and other costs related to the business relocation.

What is a 1031 or 1033 Tax Exchange?

This tax expert’s article below provides a good distinction and clarification on how to handle tax issues related to real property situations.  It does not describe how to handle eminent domain relocation payments, where many of our clients have questions.  Relocation payments, within eminent domain and condemnation, are mostly related to personal property and other expenses for relocating a business or household.  We are continuing our search for answers to tax related questions on relocation payments.  Please check back with us.

I look forward to your return.

For Eminent domain relocation payments and taxes, please see our posting at

http://eminentdomainandbusinessrelocationconsulting.com/?p=1696

Regards,

Martyn

 

After years of conducting tens of thousands of successful 1031 exchanges, we found that there are a number of frequently asked questions related to this type of transaction…

Equity and Gain

Is my tax based on my equity or my taxable gain?

Tax is calculated upon the taxable gain. Gain and equity are two separate and distinct items. To determine your gain, identify your original purchase price, deduct any depreciation which has been previously reported, then add the value of any improvements which have been made to the property. The resulting figure will reflect your cost or tax basis. Your gain is then calculated by subtracting the cost basis from the net sales price.

Deferring All Gain

Is there a simple rule for structuring an exchange where all the taxable gain will be deferred?

Yes, the gain will be totally deferred if you:

1) Purchase a replacement property which is equal to or greater in value than the net selling price of your relinquished (exchange) property, and
2) Move all equity from one property to the other.

Definition of Like-Kind

What are the rules regarding the exchange of like-kind properties? May I exchange a vacant parcel of land for an improved property or a rental house for a multiple-unit building?

Yes, “like-kind” refers more to the type of investment than to the type of property. Think in terms of investment real estate for investment real estate, business assets for business assets, etc.

Simultaneous Exchange Pitfalls

Is it possible to complete a simultaneous exchange without an intermediary or an exchange agreement?

While it may be possible, it may not be wise. With the Safe Harbor addition of qualified intermediaries in the Treasury Regulations and the recent adoption of good funds laws in several states, it is very difficult to close a simultaneous exchange without the benefit of either an intermediary or exchange agreement. Since two closing entities cannot hold the same exchange funds on the same day, serious constructive receipt and other legal issues arise for the Exchangor attempting such a simultaneous transaction. The addition of the intermediary Safe Harbor was an effort to abate the practice of attempting these marginal transactions. It is the view of most tax professionals that an exchange completed without an intermediary or an exchange agreement will not qualify for deferred gain treatment. And if already completed, the transaction would not pass an IRS examination due to constructive receipt and structural exchange discrepancies. The investment in a qualified intermediary is insignificant in comparison to the tax risk associated with attempting an exchange, which could be easily disqualified.

Property Conversion

How long must I wait before I can convert an investment property into my personal residence?

A few years ago the Internal Revenue Service proposed a one-year holding period before investment property could be converted, sold or transferred. Congress never adopted this proposal, so therefore no definitive holding period exists currently. However, this should not be interpreted as an unwritten approval to convert investment property at any time. Because the one-year period clearly reflects the intent of the IRS, most tax practitioners advise their clients to hold property at least one year before converting it into a personal residence.

Remember, intent is very important. It should be your intention at the time of acquisition to hold the property for its productive use in a trade or business or for its investment potential.

Involuntary Conversion

What if my property was involuntarily converted by a disaster or I was required to sell due to a governmental or eminent domain action?

Involuntary conversion is addressed within Section 1033 of the Internal Revenue Code. If your property is converted involuntarily, the time frame for reinvestment is extended to 24 months from the end of the tax year in which the property was converted. You may also apply for a 12-month reinvestment extension.

Facilitators and Intermediaries

Is there a difference between facilitators?

Most definitely. As in any professional discipline, the capability of facilitators will vary based upon their exchange knowledge, experience and real estate and/or tax familiarity.

Facilitators and Fees

Should fees be a factor in selecting a facilitator?

Yes. However, they should be considered only after first determining each facilitator’s ability to complete a qualifying transaction. This can be accomplished by researching their reputation, knowledge and level of experience.

Personal Residence Exchanges

Do the exchange rules differ between investment properties and personal residences? If I sell my personal residence, what is the time frame in which I must reinvest in another home and what must I spend on the new residence to defer gain taxes?

The rules for personal residence rollovers were formerly found in Section 1034 of the Internal Revenue Code. You may remember that those rules dictated that you had to reinvest the proceeds from the sale of your personal residence within 24 months before or after the sale, and you had to acquire a property which reflected a value equal to or greater than the value of the residence sold. These rules were discontinued with the passage of the 1997 Tax Reform Act. Currently, if a personal residence is sold, provided that residence was occupied by the taxpayer for at least two of the last five years, up to $250,000 (single) and $500,000 (married) of capital gain is exempt from taxation.

Exchanging and Improvements

May I exchange my equity in an investment property and use the proceeds to complete an improvement on a vacant lot I currently own?

Although the attempt to move equity from one investment property to another is a key element of tax deferred exchanging, you may not exchange into property you already own.

Related Parties

May I exchange into a property that is being sold by a relative?

Yes. However, any exchange between related parties requires a two-year holding period for both parties.

Partnership or Partial Interests

If I am an owner of investment property in conjunction with others, may I exchange only my partial interest in the property?

Yes. Partial interests qualify for exchanging within the scope of Section 1031. However, if your interest is not in the property but actually an interest in the partnership which owns the property, your exchange would not qualify. This is because partnership interests are excepted from Section 1031. But don’t be confused! If the entire partnership desired to stay together and exchange their property for a replacement, that would qualify.

Another caveat. Those individuals or groups owning partnership interests, who desire to complete an exchange and have for tax purposes made an election under IRC Section 761(a), can qualify for deferred gain treatment under Section 1031. This can be a tricky issue! See elsewhere in this publication for more information. Then, only undertake this election with proper tax counsel and only with the election by all partners!

Reverse Exchanges

Are reverse exchanges considered legal?

Although reverse exchanges were deliberately omitted from Section 1031, they can still be accomplished with the aid of an experienced intermediary. Since reverses are considered an aggressive form of exchanging, your intermediary and tax advisor should assist you with exchange and tax planning based upon successful reverse exchange case law.

The Taxation Section of the American Bar Association has submitted suggested guidelines for the IRS in evaluating reverse exchanges and issuing new regulations. Although it is unknown when the IRS will make a definitive reverse exchange ruling, one is expected in the future.

Identification

Why are the identification rules so time restrictive? Is there any flexibility within them?

The current identification rules represent a compromise which was proposed by the IRS and adopted in 1984. Prior to that time there were no time-related guidelines. The current 45-day provision was created to eliminate questions about the time period for identification and there is absolutely no flexibility written into the rule and no extensions are available.

In a delayed exchange, is there any limit to property value when identifying by using the 200% rule?

Yes. Although you may identify any three properties of any value under the three property rule, when using the 200% rule there is a restriction. It is when identifying four or more properties, the total aggregate value of the properties identified must not exceed more than 200% of the value of the relinquished property.

An additional exception exists for those whose identification does not qualify under the three property or two hundred percent rules. The 95% exception allows the identification of any number of properties, provided the total aggregate value of the properties acquired totals at least 95% of the properties identified.

Should identifications be made to the intermediary or to an attorney or escrow or title company?

Identifications may be made to any party listed above. However, many times the escrow holder is not equipped to receive your identification if they have not yet opened an escrow. Therefore it is easier and safer to identify through the intermediary, provided the identification is postmarked or received within the 45-day identification period.

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Disclaimer- Martyn L. Daniel represents both private parties and public agencies and provides these blog entries as a general overview on eminent domain related news.